Ireland during the Ice Age What is known of pre-Christian Ireland comes from references in Roman writings, Irish poetry and myth, and archaeology. While some possible Paleolithic tools have been found, none of the finds are convincing of Paleolithic settlement in Ireland.
The Visigoths were crushed and for almost three centuries a revived Christian kingdom, Asturias, could do little more than cling to the north coast and the northwest corner of Iberia. Nevertheless, more than one Christian state eventually organized and gradually reconquered the peninsula.
There were at different times up to five different Spanish Christian kingdoms. These were all eventually consolidated. Spain was sometimes styled an "empire. Alfonso never went to Germany, distracted by civil war and rebellionand it was already clear that the Pope had no intention of crowning him.
The entire peninsula can be called, in a geographical sense, without ambiguity, Iberia. Similarly calling the whole peninsula "Spain," however casually, can evoke impassioned responses.
Spain now is a country that is distinct from Portugal. On the other hand, in Latin, Hispania was the whole peninsula. It may have been Philip II who issued the first decree for "these realms of Spain. So the official use of "Spain" seems to have initially and in fact been for the whole peninsula.
When Portugal revolted and became independent again inthe rest of the Kingdom simply continued, down to the present, under the common name.
So what "Spain" means actually depends on what we are talking about and when. It has only really meant a political part of Iberia since Another issue is with the names of the Kings. Since the major languages of Christendom use many of the same names, it is often possible to give translations.
This was formerly the most common, so that in English one talked about "Johns" and "Peters" in the Spanish Kingdoms. This is now sometimes frowned upon, but the desire to use the "native" language of the country in question can produce some gaffs: There is also the complication that the Kings of Navarre marry into French Royalty and nobility and so after are all French speaking.
The written langugage during much of the period, of course, would just be Latin.
Simply using "John" would seem to be the least confusing and the most revealing. However, Portuguese and Spanish Castilian versions are given for most of the names somewhat irregularly.
Some names -- "Alfonso" and "Sancho" -- really do not have English equivalents. Sancho, the name of many Kings of Navarre, is written "Santxo" in Basque and may in fact have originally been a Basque name, though its origin in now obscure "Santius" was the Latinized version.
Sometimes overlooked, again, is that the Portuguese, "Afonso," is different. Equally Spanish is a derivative of "Elizabeth": There is a problem with the English equivalent for Castilian "Juana," the feminine form of "Juan.
One of their sons was then the Emperor Ferdinand I.Beginning of Tudor Dynasty, Henry VII assumes the throne Central Royal authority was strengthened and private feudal armies suppressed.
Rebellion of Lambert Simnel. End of Henry VII's reign – Begin reign of Henry VIII. Battle of Foldden English victory over Scotland. Beginning wars with France and Scotland. End wars with France and Scotland.
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Feb 17, · Invasions of Ireland from - By Professor Simon Schama Last updated Feb 17, · The 'mailed Norman fist' came to dominate much of Wales in the years after the Conquest, but by national pride returned, with the heroic exploits of Owain Glyn Dwr.
Feb 17, · Wales: English Conquest of Wales c - By Ian Bremner Last updated What is known of pre-Christian Ireland comes from references in Roman writings, Irish poetry and myth, and archaeology. While some possible Paleolithic tools have been found, none of the finds are convincing of Paleolithic settlement in Ireland.
However a bear bone found in Alice and Gwendoline Cave, County Clare, in may push back dates for the earliest human settlement of Ireland to.