Lucien died from his wounds in a makeshift army hospital on 11 October. After contracting tuberculosis inhe had to end his football activities: In addition, he was only able to study part-time. To earn money, he took odd jobs:
The first quarter of the 19th century was dominated by Romantic poetry. Moreover, the term, which represents the perspective of modern scholars seeking to trace the origin of later Russian works, obscures the fact that the East Slavic peoples of the lands then called Rus are the ancestors of the Ukrainian and Belarusian as well as of the Russian people of today.
Works of the oldest Kievan period also led to modern Ukrainian and Belarusian literature. Third, the literary language established in Kievan Rus was Church Slavonicwhich, despite the gradual increase of local East Slavic variants, linked the culture to the wider community known as Slavia orthodoxa—that is, to the Eastern Orthodox South Slavs of the Balkans.
Fourth, some have questioned whether these texts can properly be called literary, if by that term is meant works that are designed to serve a primarily aesthetic function, inasmuch as these writings were generally written to serve ecclesiastic or utilitarian purposes.
The Kievan period The Kievan period so called because Kiev was the seat of the grand princes extends from the Christianization of Russia in to the conquest of Russia by the Tatars Mongols in the 13th century.
Russia received Christianity from Byzantium rather than from Rome, a fact of decisive importance for the development of Russian culture. Whereas Catholic Poland was closely linked to cultural developments in western Europe, Orthodox Russia was isolated from the West for long periods and, at times, regarded its culture as dangerous.
Conversion by Byzantium also meant that the language of the church could be the vernacular rather than, as in the West, Latin; this was another factor that worked against the absorption of Western culture. Russia was not the first Slavic culture to be converted to Christianity, and a standardized language, the Old Church Slavonic pioneered in the 9th century by Saints Cyril or Constantine and Methodiuswas already available.
Bulgariawhich had been Christianized a century earlier and had offered a home to the Cyrillo-Methodian community, became a conduit for the transmission of Greek culture, translated into Old Church Slavonic, to Russia, which in turn rapidly established its own scribal activities in copying and translating.
Thus a significant literary activity of the Kievan period consisted of translating or adapting borrowed works. It is worth stressing that the enormous prestige accorded to translating has continued to be a distinctive characteristic of Russian culture. During the Kievan period the selection of translated foreign works circulating in Russia by and large reflected the interests of the church: Ostromirovo evangeliye The Ostromir Gospel of —57 is the oldest dated Russian manuscript.
Versions of the four Gospels, the Book of Revelationguidebooks of monastic rules, homilies, hagiographic collections, and prayers reflect the religious interests of the clerical community. But, on the whole, translations offered a rather limited access to Greek culture aside from the ecclesiastical.
Other significant homiletic works were written by Clement of Smolensk, metropolitan of Russia from toand by St.
Cyril of Turov — Both a chronicle account and two lives of Boris and Gleb, the first Russian saints, have survived to the present day. The sanctity of these two men, who were killed by their brother Svyatopolk in a struggle for the throne, consists not in activity but in the pious passivity with which, in imitation of Christ, they accepted death.
This ideal of passive acceptance of suffering was to exercise a long-lasting influence on Russian thought. The monk Nestor c. The Kievo-Pechersky paterik The Paterik of the Kievan Caves Monasteryclosely related to hagiographycollects stories from the lives of monks, along with other religious writings.
The tradition of pilgrimage literature also begins in this period. Composed between andthe Igor Tale, as it is generally known, was discovered in by Count Musin-Pushkin. The manuscript was destroyed in the Moscow fire of ; however, a copy made for Catherine II the Great survived.
Its theme is the disastrous fratricidal disunity of the Russian princes. Eventually the grand princes of Moscow succeeded in defeating the Tatars and subduing the principalities. The exception was the lands under the rule of the Lithuanian-Polish kingdom, and this division initiated the development of separate Ukrainian and Belarusian cultural traditions.While literature and film focus themselves on the same targets within the minds of their audiences; that of completing an organic connection between the conception and the reception of an idea, the very natures of the two disciplines demand different things of the person who is reading or watching the material.
The writers most commonly associated with Absurdism are Samuel Beckett, Eugène Ionesco, Jean Genet, Arthur Adamov, Harold Pinter, and Edward Albee, as well as a number of lesser-known dramatists. The avant-garde nature of absurdist writing contributed in part to its short life as a literary movement.
Realist works are characterized by traditional narrative and real story that has real characters, events and conflict. Naturalism is a literary movement which “characterized by the application of scientific determinism to literature”.
Absurdism in literature (or Absurdist fiction) usually focuses on characters or situations who can find no meaningful purpose in life.
Contradictions regarding the universe and human actions are a. Absurdism is a philosophical stance embracing a wide range of relativist perspectives, which implies that the efforts of humanity to find or absolutely define, limit, express or exclude the inherent meanings of anything, including human existence, are absurd due to actual lack of meaning and the qualities of communicable information available to the human mind, and relationships within Reality.
Seeing as this is an English course, the second aim will be to develop skills necessary for students to be effective readers and writers. The cultivation of these abilities will not only aid students in their exploration of violence in literature, but in any other analytical work they may need to do in the future.