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Ageing versus immortality[ edit ] Immortal Hydra, a relative of the jellyfish Human beings and members of other species, especially animals, necessarily experience ageing and mortality. Fungi, too, can age. Early life forms on Earth, starting at least 3.
Such organisms prokaryotes, protozoans, algae multiply by fissioning into daughter cells; thus do not age and are innately immortal.
The sexual organism could henceforth pass on some of its genetic material to produce new individuals and could itself become disposable with respect to the survival of its species.
A number of characteristic ageing symptoms are experienced by a majority or by a significant Essays on nutrition and the elderly of humans during their lifetimes.
Dementia becomes more common with age. Furthermore, many types of memory decline with ageingbut not semantic memory or general knowledge such as vocabulary definitions, which typically increases or remains steady until late adulthood  see Ageing brain.
Intelligence declines with age, though the rate varies depending on the type and may in fact remain steady throughout most of the lifespan, dropping suddenly only as people near the end of their lives. Individual variations in rate of cognitive decline may therefore be explained in terms of people having different lengths of life.
Senescence year-old woman holding a five-month-old boy At present, researchers are only just beginning to understand the biological basis of ageing even in relatively simple and short-lived organisms such as yeast.
A model organism for studying of ageing is the nematode C. Programmed factors follow a biological timetable, perhaps one that might be a continuation of the one that regulates childhood growth and development.
This regulation would depend on changes in gene expression that affect the systems responsible for maintenance, repair and defence responses.
Damage-related factors include internal and environmental assaults to living organisms that induce cumulative damage at various levels. It is likely that most of these pathways affect ageing separately, because targeting them simultaneously leads to additive increases in lifespan.
For example, numerous perennial plants ranging from strawberries and potatoes to willow trees typically produce clones of themselves by vegetative reproduction and are thus potentially immortal, while annual plants such as wheat and watermelons die each year and reproduce by sexual reproduction. In it was discovered that inactivation of only two genes in the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana leads to its conversion into a potentially immortal perennial plant.
Clonal immortality apart, there are certain species whose individual lifespans stand out among Earth's life-forms, including the bristlecone pine at years  or years,  invertebrates like the hard clam known as quahog in New England at years,  the Greenland shark at years,  various deep-sea tube worms at over years,  fish like the sturgeon and the rockfishand the sea anemone  and lobster.
In laboratory settings, researchers have demonstrated that selected alterations in specific genes can extend lifespan quite substantially in yeast and roundwormsless so in fruit flies and less again in mice.
Some of the targeted genes have homologues across species and in some cases have been associated with human longevity. The strong effect of age on DNA methylation levels has been known since the late s.
DNA methylation age of blood predicts all-cause mortality in later life. This resetting into a juvenile state was experimentally achieved by activating the four Yamanaka DNA transcription factors — Sox2Oct4Klf4 and c-Myc which have previously been routinely used for producing young animals from cloned adult skin cells.
In humans and other animals, cellular senescence has been attributed to the shortening of telomeres at each cell division ;  when telomeres become too short, the cells senesce and die or cease multiplying.Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays.
Published: Mon, 5 Dec Factors that may contribute to altered nutrition in elderly. You may have arrived at this page because you followed a link to one of our old platforms that cannot be redirected. Cambridge Core is the new academic platform from Cambridge University Press, replacing our previous platforms; Cambridge Journals Online (CJO), Cambridge Books Online (CBO), University Publishing Online (UPO), Cambridge Histories Online (CHO), Cambridge Companions Online (CCO.
How Nutrition In The Elderly Differs From Nutrition In Adults Population-based nutritional surveys show a gradual decline in energy intake in the elderly, accompanied by an increase in energy from carbohydrates and a decrease in energy from fat (van Staveren and de Groot, ).
The Elderly and Malnutrition Essays; The Elderly and Malnutrition Essays. Words 7 Pages. The Elderly and Malnutrition At any age, nutrition is vital to maintaining health and enhancing quality of life.
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