Ethics should concern all levels of life:
Back to Top Ethics or Moral Philosophy is concerned with questions of how people ought to act, and the search for a definition of right conduct identified as the one causing the greatest good and the good life in the sense of a life worth living or a life that is satisfying or happy.
The word "ethics" is derived from the Greek "ethos" meaning "custom" or "habit". Ethics differs from morals and morality in that ethics denotes the theory of right action and the greater good, while morals indicate their practice. Ethics is not limited to specific acts and defined moral codes, but encompasses the whole of moral ideals and behaviors, a person's philosophy of life or Weltanschauung.
It asks questions like "How should people act? See below for more discussion of these categories. Ancient Greek Ethics Back to Top Socratesas recorded in Plato 's dialogues, is customarily regarded as the father of Western ethics. He asserted that people will naturally do what is good provided that they know what is right, and that evil or bad actions are purely the result of ignorance: He equated knowledge and wisdom with self-awareness meaning to be aware of every fact relevant to a person's existence and virtue and happiness.
So, in essence, he considered self-knowledge and self-awareness to be the essential good, because the truly wise i. According to Aristotle"Nature does nothing in vain", so it is only when a person acts in accordance with their nature and thereby realizes their full potential, that they will do good and therefore be content in life.
He held that self-realization the awareness of one's nature and the development of one's talents is the surest path to happiness, which is the ultimate goal, all other things such as civic life or wealth being merely means to an end. He encouraged moderation in all things, the extremes being degraded and immoral, e.
Virtue, for Aristotledenotes doing the right thing to the right person at the right time to the proper extent in the correct fashion and for the right reason - something of a tall order.
Cynicism is an ancient doctrine best exemplified by the Greek philosopher Diogenes of Sinopewho lived in a tub on the streets of Athens. He taught that a life lived according to Nature was better than one that conformed to convention, and that a simple life is essential to virtue and happiness.
As a moral teacher, Diogenes emphasized detachment from many of those things conventionally considered "good". Hedonism posits that the principal ethic is maximizing pleasure and minimizing pain.
The Ethical Theory Of Utilitarianism - Zohra Javid Professor Taylor PHIL 31 October Second Reaction Paper o Consider the ethical theory of utilitarianism as discussed in chapters 7 and 8 of The Elements of Moral Philosophy. Philosophy is the systematic study of the foundations of human knowledge with an emphasis on the conditions of its validity and finding answers to ultimate questions. While every other science aims at investigating a specific area of knowledge, such as physics or psychology, philosophy has been defined as “thinking about thinking.”At the same time, as expressed by its Greek etymology. MAKING CHOICES: A FRAMEWORK FOR MAKING ETHICAL DECISIONS. This is based on a formulation of Kant’s categorical imperative that says: “Act in such a way that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of another, always at the same time as an end and never simply as a means to an end.” it would apply to every.
This may range from those advocating self-gratification regardless of the pain and expense to others and with no thought for the future Cyrenaic Hedonismto those who believe that the most ethical pursuit maximizes pleasure and happiness for the most people.
Somewhere in the middle of this continuum, Epicureanism observed that indiscriminate indulgence sometimes results in negative consequences, such as pain and fear, which are to be avoided. The Stoic philosopher Epictetus posited that the greatest good was contentment, serenity and peace of mind, which can be achieved by self-mastery over one's desires and emotions, and freedom from material attachments.
In particular, sex and sexual desire are to be avoided as the greatest threat to the integrity and equilibrium of a man's mind.
According to Epictetusdifficult problems in life should not be avoided, but rather embraced as spiritual exercises needed for the health of the spirit. Pyrrhothe founding figure of Pyrrhonian Skepticismtaught that one cannot rationally decide between what is good and what is bad although, generally speaking, self-interest is the primary motive of human behavior, and he was disinclined to rely upon sincerity, virtue or Altruism as motivations.
Humanismwith its emphasis on the dignity and worth of all people and their ability to determine right and wrong purely by appeal to universal human qualities especially rationalitycan be traced back to ThalesXenophanes of Colophon - B.
These early Greek thinkers were all instrumental in the move away from a spiritual morality based on the supernatural, and the development of a more humanistic freethought the view that beliefs should be formed on the basis of science and logic, and not be influenced by emotion, authority, tradition or dogma.
Normative Ethics Back to Top Normative Ethics or Prescriptive Ethics is the branch of ethics concerned with establishing how things should or ought to be, how to value them, which things are good or bad, and which actions are right or wrong. It attempts to develop a set of rules governing human conduct, or a set of norms for action.J.
L. Mackie - Ethics~ Inventing Right and Wrong (, ) - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free.
The second expression of Kant’s categorical imperative requires that ethical decisions treat others as ends and not means. Kant’s conception of ethical duties can provide clear guidance but at the cost of inflexibility: it can be hard to make the categorical imperative work in everyday life.
I. Like most right-thinking people, I’d always found Immanuel Kant kind of silly. He was the standard-bearer for naive deontology, the “rules are rules, so follow them . Mar 15, · Moral Issues in Business focusing on Kant’s Duty-Based Ethics.
It will also include suggestions for managers or professionals who want to apply this ethical theory in their organization and the benefits that they can gain from it.
Based on the first maxim from the categorical imperative, Kant suggests that every action. Categorical Imperative Kant [s theory requires us to imagine all companies behaving as we do, imagining our maxims as laws of nature.
Companies must behave in a sustainable way in For Singer, ethical business decisions involve weighing the interests of all stake-holders, not just stock-holders. Environmental destruction.
ACC Review. STUDY. PLAY. Do to others as you would have everyone do. The best restatement of Kant's categorical imperative is: Ethical Egoism. According to this theory, each person is so constituted that they will look out only for their own interests: At which stage of Kohlberg's view on ethical development is an individual's actions.