Information on computer protection

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Information on computer protection

Vulnerability computing A vulnerability is a weakness in design, implementation, operation or internal control. Most of the vulnerabilities that have been discovered are documented in the Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures CVE database. An exploitable vulnerability is one for which at least one working attack or " exploit" exists.

To secure a computer system, it is important to understand the attacks that can be made against it, and these threats can typically be classified into one of these categories below: Backdoor[ edit ] A backdoor in a computer system, a cryptosystem or an algorithm, is any secret method of bypassing normal authentication or security controls.

They may exist for a number of reasons, including by original design or from poor configuration. They may have been added by an authorized party to allow some legitimate access, or by an attacker for malicious reasons; but regardless of the motives for their existence, they create a vulnerability.

Denial-of-service attacks[ edit ] Denial of service attacks DoS are designed to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users. While a network attack from a single IP address can be blocked by adding a new firewall rule, many forms of Distributed denial of service DDoS attacks are possible, where the attack comes from a large number of points — and defending is much more difficult.

Such attacks can originate from the zombie computers of a botnetbut a range of other techniques are possible including reflection and amplification attackswhere innocent systems are fooled into sending traffic to the victim. Direct-access attacks[ edit ] An unauthorized user gaining physical access to a computer is most likely able to directly copy data from it.

They may also compromise security by making operating system modifications, installing software wormskeyloggerscovert listening devices or using wireless mice. Disk encryption and Trusted Platform Module are designed to prevent these attacks.

Eavesdropping[ edit ] Eavesdropping is the act of surreptitiously listening to a private conversation, typically between hosts on a network. Even machines that operate as a closed system i. Multivector, polymorphic attacks[ edit ] Surfacing ina new class of multi-vector, [7] polymorphic [8] cyber threats surfaced that combined several types of attacks and changed form to avoid cybersecurity controls as they spread.

These threats have been classified as fifth generation cyberattacks. Preying on a victim's trust, phishing can be classified as a form of social engineering. Privilege escalation[ edit ] Privilege escalation describes a situation where an attacker with some level of restricted access is able to, without authorization, elevate their privileges or access level.

For example, a standard computer user may be able to fool the system into giving them access to restricted data; or even to " become root " and have full unrestricted access to a system.

Information on computer protection

Social engineering security Social engineering aims to convince a user to disclose secrets such as passwords, card numbers, etc. Spoofing attack Spoofing is the act of masquerading as a valid entity through falsification of data such as an IP address or usernamein order to gain access to information or resources that one is otherwise unauthorized to obtain.

Email spoofingwhere an attacker forges the sending From, or source address of an email. IP address spoofingwhere an attacker alters the source IP address in a network packet to hide their identity or impersonate another computing system.A provider of interactive computer service shall, at the time of entering an agreement with a customer for the provision of interactive computer service and in a manner deemed appropriate by the provider, notify such customer that parental control protections (such as computer hardware, software, or filtering services) are commercially available that .

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Information on computer protection

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