Regional Competitiveness The significance accorded by policymakers to the notion of competitiveness reflects the increasing emphasis on competitive advantage for national economies.
Donate History of basic income The idea of an unconditional basic income has three historical roots. The idea of a minimum income first appeared at the beginning of the 16th century. The idea of an unconditional one-off grant first appeared at the end of the 18th century. And the two were combined for the first time to form the idea of an unconditional basic income near the middle of the 19th century.
With the advent of the Renaissance, the task of looking after the welfare of poor people ceased to be regarded as the exclusive preserve of the Church and of charitable individuals.
Some of the so-called humanists started playing with the idea of a minimum income in the form of public assistance. Such a scheme, he argued, would be a more astute way of fighting theft than sentencing thieves to death, which had the unpleasant side effect of increasing the murder rate.
I forgot how the subject came up, but he was speaking with great enthusiasm about the stern measures that were then being taken against thieves. Considering how few of them get away with it, how come we are still plagued with so many robbers?
In this respect, you English, like most other nations, remind me of these incompetent schoolmasters, who prefer caning their pupils to teaching them.
Juan Luis Vives was born in Valencia in a family of converted Jews. He left Spain in to escape the Inquisition, studied at the Sorbonne but soon got fed up by the conservative scholastic philosophy that was prevailing in Paris at the time and moved on to Bruges inand in to Louvain, one of the main centres of the humanist movement, where he was appointed professor in He taught more briefly at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, but spent most of his adult life in the city of Bruges, where his statue can still be seen on the bank of one of the main canals.
In a memoir addressed to the Mayor of Bruges in under the title De Subventione Pauperum On the Assistance to the Poorhe proposed that the municipal government should be given the responsibility of securing a subsistence minimum to all its residents, not on grounds of justice but for the sake of a more effective exercise of morally required charity.
The assistance scheme would be closely targeted to the poor. Indeed it is because of their ability to target them more efficiently that public officials should be put in charge of poor relief.
However, smaller rations and more irksome tasks should be assigned to them so that they may be an example to others. Indeed, this concern should consistently extend to those born rich: If the poor cannot be parasites, why could the rich?
The first known person to have sketched the idea is the first-rate mathematician and political activist, Antoine Caritat, Marquis de Condorcet After having played a prominent role in the French revolution, both as a journalist and as a member of the Convention, Condorcet was imprisoned and sentenced to death.
We shall show that we can to a large extent removing it, by opposing luck to itself, by securing to those who reach old age a relief that is the product of what he saved, but increased by the savings of those individuals who made the same sacrifice but died before the time came for them to need to collect its fruit; by using a similar compensation to provide women and children, at the moment they lose their husbands or fathers, with resources at the same level and acquired at the same price, whether the family concerned was afflicted by a premature death or could keep its head for longer; and finally by giving to those children who become old enough to work by themselves and found a new family the advantage of a capital required by the development of their activity and increased as the result of some dying too early to be able to enjoy it.
It is to the application of calculus to the probabilities of life and to the investment of money that one owes the idea of this method. The latter has already been successfully used, but never on the scale and with the variety of forms that would make it really useful, not merely to a handful of individuals, but to the entire mass of society.
It would free the latter from the periodic bankruptcy of a large number of families, that inexhaustible source of corruption and misery. Though not targeted to the poor and involving massive transfers to the non-poor, these systems soon started having a huge impact on poverty as their development quickly dwarfed public assistance schemes and relegated them to a subsidiary role.
In one way, social insurance brought us closer to basic income than public assistance, as the social benefits it distributed were not prompted by compassion, but by an entitlement, based in this case on the premiums paid into the insurance system.
For this reason, unlike the most comprehensive versions of public assistance, even the most comprehensive forms of social insurance cannot provide a guaranteed minimum income.
Every proprietor, therefore, of cultivated lands, owes to the community a ground-rent for I know of no better term to express the idea for the land which he holds; and it is from this ground-rent that the fund proposed in this plan is to issue.
In his attempt to combine liberalism and socialism, he proposed that young people should all be given an endowment financed out of the taxation of the whole of that part of land and other property which the bequeather has himself received see esp.
Yale University Press, Westview Press, for a useful surveyhave rather interpreted it so as to give guaranteed income schemes a firmer basis than public charity.
Most famous among them is the eccentric and prolific French writer Charles Fourier But despite the nature of the underlying justification, poor relief is still not being turned into a universal income.
Undoubtedly inspired by the Fourierist tradition, he saw the equal right to the ownership of land as the foundation of an unconditional right to some income. But he rejected both the right to means-tested assistance advocated by Charles Fourier himself and the right to paid work advocated by his most prominent disciple Victor Considerant.
The former, he reckoned, only dealt with the effects, and the latter involved too much mingling by the state. Would it not encourage idleness? This is not quite what happened to another admirer of Fourierism: This discussion unambiguously ascribes to the Fourierists the proposal of a non-means-tested basic income: This System does not contemplate the abolition of private property, nor even of inheritance; on the contrary, it avowedly takes into consideration, as elements in the distribution of the produce, capital as well as labour.
The remainder of the produce is shared in certain proportions, to be determined beforehand, among the three elements, Labour, Capital, and Talent.The idea of an unconditional basic income has three historical roots. The idea of a minimum income first appeared at the beginning of the 16th century.
The idea of an unconditional one-off grant first appeared at the end of the 18th century. And the two were combined for the first time to form the idea of an unconditional basic income.
Relationship Between Nigeria Labour Congress (NLC) And Government – A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA LABOUR CONGRESS (NLC) Relationship Between Nigeria Labour Congress (NLC) And Government. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY. Note: Any other capital held (including the balance on hands from previous payments) should also be assessed.
(h) Withdrawals of capital not accounted for. Large withdrawals of capital should be investigated. Receipts should be requested to validate large sums spent. Division of Labor is the specialization of cooperative labor in specific, circumscribed tasks and roles, intended to increase efficiency of output.
It has been present in most cultures throughout human history. In its most essential form, there is a division of based on gender, such as in hunter-gatherer societies where men hunt and women gather food while taking care of children. Aug 20, · Paul Krugman tells us today that, well, Sweden just isn't as bad as many seem to think it is.
Every time I read someone talking about the “collapsing welfare states of Europe”, I have this. A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE WELFARE STATE. By Tim Lambert. The Elizabethan Poor Law.
In the 16th century society was faced with the problem of what to do with the poor.