Saul McLeodpublished Imagine yourself in the following situation: You sign up for a psychology experiment, and on a specified date you and seven others whom you think are also participants arrive and are seated at a table in a small room. She places two cards before you. The card on the left contains one vertical line.
How to Write a Summary of an Article? Kelman said that there are 3 types of conformity, Compliance, which means going along with others to gain approval and avoid rejection and accepting the group view in public but not private.
Informational Social influence is when an individual goes along with the majority because they believe that the majority is right and better informed then they are.
Sherif conducted a study to test this theory in which he put the participants in a darkened room with a stationary point of light and asked them to say how much the light seemed to move and in what direction, with the participants giving their individual answers.
Sherif then put them into groups of three and asked them to answer again. Sherif found that the participants changed their answer to reflect the groups as they believed the group was better informed and correct, which is an example of Informational Social Influence.
The other theory as to why people conform is Normative Social influence which is when an individual complies with the group, changing their behaviour and goes along with the majority publicly to avoid rejection but privately disagrees with their view.
|(1) Behavioral Style||Minority influence is generally felt only after a period of time, and tends to produce private acceptance of the views expressed by the minority. An important real-life example of a minority influencing a majority was the suffragette movement in the early years of the 20th century.|
|How does the minority change the majority view?||Asked our student volunteers to take part in the vision test, all but one of the volunteers were colleagues of the experimenter.|
|Accommodation advice||Making A level psychology easier Majority influence Will people conform to a majority group opinion even when that opinion is obviously incorrect? What factors affect conformity?|
|Kelman said that there are 3 types of conformity, Compliance, which means going along with others to gain approval and avoid rejection and accepting the group view in public but not private.|
|Minority influence is generally felt only after a period of time, and tends to produce private acceptance of the views expressed by the minority.|
Asch put the participants into groups f seven, with all but one participant being confederates of the Asch. The group was shown a set of three lines and a separate reference line and the task was to judge which of the three lines was the same length as the reference line, with each set consisting of one line that was obviously the same length and two lines that were obviously different.
Also when the task was made more difficult, conformity increased. Another criticism is the sample of participants were all young male students from the same university and so the results can not be generalised. The study also lacked ecological validity as judging line lengths is not an everyday task.
However what these theories do not consider is social roles. The guards were given uniforms and mirrored sunglasses and had to enforce the rules of the prison.
The prisoners rebelled on the first day and the guards responded by aggressively enforcing order and discipline within the prison. They used fire extinguishers against the prisoners, locked individuals in a dark broom cupboard for hours at a time, constantly harassed them, and even played prisoners off against each other.
Over time the prisoners became more and more subdued and took on the submissive role of the prisoner. The guards began to enjoy the power they had, and their use of aggression and harassment steadily increased as they took on the dominant role of prison guards. The experiment had to be stopped early due to how dangerous and brutal it became, with three prisoners being released early due to severe psychological distress.
Zimbardo concluded that the roles the participants found themselves in and the environment caused the behaviour displayed as both the guards and prisoners conformed to the behaviour they believed that role should display.
Both guards and prisoners rapidly conformed, in just a few days, to the social roles that the situation placed them in. There are also ecological validity issues as prison officers apply to be prison officers in real life, unlike the experiment where they could be guards or prisoners, and prison officers do not work 24 hours a day, which brings the ecological validity of the experiment into question.
There are also other factors we must consider which affect whether people conform.
One factor is the culture in which people are brought up. People who come from a collectivist culture are more likely to conform then someone from an individualistic culture as the collectivist culture focuses on group mentality and places the needs of the group over the needs of the individual, so a study in a highly individualistic culture like America can yield different results then conducting the same study in a highly collectivist culture such as China.
Another factor is the time period the study was conducted in. The attitudes of that particular period can affect the results and may not hold true today. Thus the study might be measuring the attitudes of that time period and conducting the same study in a different time period could bring different results.
Recent research has suggested that women are more likely to conform then men as women are more socially orientated and thus will fear social rejection more.
The group size also has an impact on conformity levels as the bigger the group is, the more pressure there is to conform. The type of task is also a factor, if the task is difficult or ambiguous; people are more likely to defer to other people or a group and conform as the person believes the group has more information and is right, whereas if the task is easy and unambiguous the person is more likely to resist conforming.
Conformity is a big factor in human social behaviour as every human feels the need to fit in with groups and society as a whole, which drives our social behaviour. As the research shows, people conform to avoid social rejection and because society expects them to behave in a certain way.Outline and evaluate research into majority influence (12 marks) 6 AO1 marks come from describing the aim, procedure, results and conclusion of the Asch line experiment.
6 AO2 marks can come from a wide variety of evaluation points. Outline and evaluate research into Conformity as an explanation of Human Social Behaviour “Conforming” is when a person changes the way they act and think to fit in with the majority of people in a group to gain acceptance.
Outline and evaluate research into conformity: (12 marks) Asch carried out a key study in the field of conformity in , looking at whether people will conform to the group and give an incorrect answer to a .
Moscovici and Minority Influence. Asians with Asians, teenagers with teenagers etc. Research indicates that if the majority identifies with the minority, then they are more likely to take the views of the minority seriously and change their own views in line with those of the urbanagricultureinitiative.com: Saul Mcleod.
Would you go along with the majority opinion, or would you "stick to your guns" and trust your own eyes? Solomon Asch - Conformity Experiment Asch believed that the main problem with Sherif's () conformity experiment was that there was no correct answer to the ambiguous autokinetic urbanagricultureinitiative.com: Saul Mcleod.
Outline and Evaluate Research Into Majority Influence Essay. Outline and evaluate research on majority influence There are two major studies in which we can look, at these are Asch and Zimbardo - Outline and Evaluate Research Into Majority Influence Essay introduction.
Asked our student volunteers to take part in the vision test, all but one of the volunteers were colleagues of the.