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Abstract We present designs of all-optical reversible gates, namely, Feynman, Toffoli, Peres, and Feynman double gates, with optically controlled microresonators. To demonstrate the applicability, a bacteriorhodopsin protein-coated silica microcavity in contact between two tapered single-mode fibers has been used as an all-optical switch.
This configuration has been used as a template to design four-port tunable resonant coupler logic gates. The proposed designs are general and can be implemented in both fiber-optic and integrated-optic formats and with any other coated photosensitive material.
Introduction There is tremendous research effort to achieve all-optical information processing for ultrafast and ultrahigh bandwidth communication and computing. The natural parallelism of optics along with advances in fabricating micro- and nanostructures has opened up exciting possibilities to generate, manipulate, and detect light and to tailor the optical molecular response for low-power all-optical computing [ 1 — 5 ].
A switch is the basic building block of information processing systems and optical logic gates are integral components of higher optical Reversible logic thesis circuits.
Conventional classical computing is based on Boolean logic that is irreversible, that is, the inputs cannot be inferred from the output, as the number of output bits is less than the inputs.
This leads to destruction of information and hence to the dissipation of a large amount of energy [ 6 — 9 ]. Conservative and reversible logic circumvents this problem by having equal number of inputs and outputs and opening up the possibility of ultra-low power computing [ 6 — 9 ].
It is also compatible with revolutionary optical and quantum computing paradigms. Quantum arithmetic has to be built from reversible logical components, as unitary operations are reversible and hence quantum networks effecting elementary arithmetic operations such as addition, multiplication, and exponentiation cannot be directly deduced from their classical Boolean counterparts [ 10 ].
A gate is conservative if the Hamming weight of its input equals the Hamming weight of its output. A number of physical implementations for the universal Fredkin gate have been proposed based on nonlinear optical bistable elements [ 13 ], interferometers [ 91415 ], linear optics [ 1617 ], complementary metal-oxide semiconductor CMOScellular automata [ 18 ], silicon-on-insulator SOI [ 19 ], cavity quantum electrodynamics QED [ 20 ], spin states [ 21 ], recombination enzymes, and DNA membranes [ 22 ].
All-optical implementation of Fredkin gate has also been demonstrated experimentally with semiconductor optical amplifiers SOA [ 23 ] and recently with optical fiber-based nonlinear optical loop mirror NOLM [ 24 ].
However, there have been fewer designs proposed to implement other reversible logic gates. Recently, a photophysical design of a molecular Feynman gate has been proposed using fluorophores as molecular switches [ 25 ] and the quantum Tofolli gate with linear optics [ 26 ], atom-cavity interaction [ 27 ], and trapped ions [ 28 ].
The major challenge in the practical realization of optical logic has so far been in meeting essential requirements of cascadability, fan-out, logic-level restoration, input-output isolation, absence of critical level biasing, logic level independent of loss and of course low-power operation [ 3 ].
To effectively compete with future advancements in electronic implementations, optical logic has to be achieved at ultra-low power levels. However, advancements in fabricating nanostructures resonators and plasmonicsquantum dots, single molecule, and single photon devices, in even silicon, offer exciting possibilities to achieve this objective [ 1 — 5 ].
Application of the extremely sensitive and versatile microresonator structures for switching and computing applications has evoked tremendous interest due to their ultra-high Q-factor, low switching threshold, tunability, and ultra compactness [ 29 — 34 ]. They have also been shown to be feasible for building optical microcavity network on a chip for applications in quantum information processing [ 35 ].
The recent demonstration of a fiber-taper-coupled ultrahigh-Q microtoroid on a chip enables integration of wafer-based functions with ultralow-loss fiber-coupled quantum devices.
Due to the high Q-factor and the small dimensions, switching at low-power is feasible.
In addition to this, coating the microcavity with a photosensitive material can further lead to switching at ultralow powers [ 38 ]. Silica microsphere optical resonators coated with a conjugated polymer [ 39 ] or silicon-nanocrystals [ 40 ] have been reported, in which optically induced thermo-optic switching takes place.
However, it would be better to have a sensitive photochromic material-coated resonator for all-optical switching applications at low powers. The photochromic protein bacteriorhodopsin BRwhich is found in the purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium, has emerged as an excellent material for biomolecular photonic applications due to its unique advantages [ 41 — 43 ].
It exhibits high quantum efficiency of converting light into a state change, large absorption cross-section and nonlinearities, robustness to degeneration by environmental perturbations, high stability towards photodegradation and temperature, response in the visible spectrum, low production cost, environmental friendliness, capability to form thin films in polymers and gels, and flexibility to tune its kinetic and spectral properties by genetic engineering techniques, for device applications [ 42 — 44 ].
A wide range of applications has been proposed for BR.Time. Time is what we use a clock to measure. Information about time tells us the durations of events, and when they occur, and which events happen before which others, so time has a very significant role in the universe's organization.
Abstract: Logic gates with three input bits and three output bits have a privileged position within fundamental computer science: they are a sufficient building block for constructing arbitrary reversible boolean networks and therefore are the key to reversible digital computers.
Such computers can, in principle, operate without heat production.
Sep 18, · Transparency is a range of contradictions rapid and reversible strategy whereby the state counter measures to address anew the problems that were this stee hummer demand fell so quickly that general motors shut down and falls thesis master introduction example into several subcategories.
I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.
This thesis explores the problem of reversible logic synthesis using a single base gate and a few ancilla bits. Two base gates are discussed: a variation of the 3- bit Toffoli gate and the original 3-bit Fredkin gate. About the Text of the printed book.
The text of William Kingdon Clifford’s “The Ethics of Belief” is based upon the first edition of Lectures and Essays, Macmillan and Co., , edited by Leslie Stephen and Frederick urbanagricultureinitiative.com text of William James’ “The Will to Believe” is based upon the first edition of The Will to Believe and other essays in popular philosophy, Longmans.