Razib Khan One-stop-shopping for all of my content September 14, Filed under: IndiaIslamIslamicate — Razib Khan That is, an idea, a concept, does not exist on an island but is embedded in a cultural environment. My father is a professional scientist, and a Muslim who lives in the West.
The Iranian languages and most of the languages of India are also Indo-European. Then there are the languages of Finland and Hungary, which are hypothesized to be of a broader Finno-Ugric family.
Whatever the validity of this cluster, the relationship of Hungarian and Finnish to languages which are extant deep into Eurasia, beyond the Urals and into Siberia, are not disputed.
Turkic and Semitic families have a toehold in Europe via Turkish and Maltese. And finally, you have the Basque dialects.
Basque is not related to any other language in the world; it is a linguistic isolate. There have been attempts to connect Basque to languages in the Caucasus, but these are highly speculative conjectures. So where did Basque come from?
A common assumption is that Basque is the autochthonous speech of the Iberian peninsula, perhaps related to Sami brandt thesis pre-Latin dialects extant to the south and east of the peninsula the Romans arrived on the scene at a time when Spain was also partially dominated by Celtic tribes.
Many go further and assert that the Basques are the pure descendants of the first modern humans to arrive on the European continent, heirs of the Cro-Magnons. Even if this claim is a bit much, many would cede that the Basque populations derive from the hunter-gatherers who were extant on the continent when the Neolithic farmers arrived from the Middle East, and Indo-European speakers pushed in from the east.
Foremost among them is that the Basque seem to Sami brandt thesis the highest frequency of Rh- in the world, primarily because of the high frequency of the null allele within the population it is a recessively expressed trait. Rh- is very rare outside of Europe, but its frequency exhibits a west-east gradient even within the continent.
The map above the illustrates the frequencies of this trait, and you can see how the Basque region is cordoned off.
Because of the early knowledge of this heritable trait you have a lot of weird anthropological theories which hinge around blood group genetics having emerged in the early 20th century. But even as late as the mids L. Cavalli-Sforza reported in The History and Geography of Human Genes using classical markers that the Basques exhibited some distinctiveness.
Over the years with the rise of Y and mtDNA phylogenetics this distinctiveness has taken a hit. I think the data have a tendency of confirming expectations, or it is often interpreted as such. But the recent story of the R1b haplogroup strongly implied that the Basques are no different from other west Europeans, and are likely the descendants of Neolithic farmers themselves!
A new paper in Human Genetics supports the contention that the Basque are just like other Europeans, A genome-wide survey does not show the genetic distinctiveness of Basques: Basques are a cultural isolate, and, according to mainly allele frequencies of classical polymorphisms, also a genetic isolate.
We investigated the differentiation of Spanish Basques from the rest of Iberian populations by means of a dense, genome-wide SNP array. We found that F ST distances between Spanish Basques and other populations were similar to those between pairs of non-Basque populations.
The same result is found in a PCA of individuals, showing a general distinction between Iberians and other South Europeans independently of being Basques.
Thus, Basques cannot be considered a genetic outlier under a general genome scope and interpretations on their origin may have to be revised. They had about 30 individuals in 10 groups unique to their sample.
They limited it to SNPs which were the most informative out of the hundreds of thousands on the chip. There is no real difference between Basques and non-Basques.
Because of ancient DNA extraction the historical genetic history of Europe is in flux right now. Uniparental haplogroups which in the early aughts were presumed to be relics of the hunter-gatherer substrate may not be that at all.
The new research on R1b suggesting that it originated in Anatolia, and its high frequency in the Basques also puts into doubt the idea that the Basques are pure descendants of Paleolithic Europeans. Why did people think that the Basque were so special? Mostly because their language is special.
As I stated above, it seems that at the time of the Roman conquest much of Spain, especially away from the coastal Mediterranean fringe, was undergoing a process of Celticization. Eventually Indo-Europeanization was completed by the Romans through the spread of Latin. But, the loci of Roman cultural expansion were colonies which were concentrated along the coastal regions of the Mediterranean.
Iberia which faced the ocean was a marginal frontier where Latinization seems to have proceeded rather slowly and fitfully until the Western Empire collapsed.
With the re-barbarization of inland and Atlantic Iberia the Basques managed to carve out a niche for themselves as forceful actors they famously harried the troops of Charlemagne as they returned to Francia after their expedition in northern Iberia.
Behind mountains on the fringes of Europe and against the ocean the Basques evaded Indo-Europeanization.Port Manteaux churns out silly new words when you feed it an idea or two. Enter a word (or two) above and you'll get back a bunch of portmanteaux created by jamming together words that are conceptually related to your inputs..
For example, enter "giraffe" and you'll get . The Insight Show Notes — Season 2, Episode 8: the genetics of taste. This week on The Insight (Apple Podcasts and Stitcher) Razib Khan and Spencer Wells discuss the genetics of urbanagricultureinitiative.com, sour, salty, bitter, and of course, umami!
We talked about PTC paper test for bitter quite a urbanagricultureinitiative.com are two papers on the underlying genetics. A recommendation from The Scholar’s Stage has finally pushed me to complete Imperial China –, a book which I first began reading over ten years urbanagricultureinitiative.com The Fall of Rome: And the End of Civilization this may be a work I read again and again.
Unlike The Fall of Rome Imperial China is not tightly argued. There is no argument, just narrative and exposition. A few people have asked me about a new paper on arXiv, The Missing Link of Jewish European Ancestry: Contrasting the Rhineland and the Khazarian Hypotheses.
Since it is . Anna is drugged and made the princess of a bizarre, secret organization, and is made to perform various sex acts. The word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman (also known as the Ottoman dynasty).
Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān (عثمان ). In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye (دولت عليه عثمانیه ), (literally "The.