Eventually the Elizabethan government realized they would have to introduce some kind of system to support them. By an act of overseers of the poor were appointed by each parish.
In a climate of relief after the war, a climate diffused with an idealism for a new, more just society, welfare legislation had bipartisan support. There was a clear sense of rebuilding a better Britain.
There is certainly some truth in the argument that the welfare measures that were introduced in the years from to had a rather longer history. The period before the war had seen long-running debates about the lack of co-ordination of hospital services.
There was concern to learn from and develop the existing experience of a health insurance scheme for medical treatment for some of the population.
And there were criticisms of the legacies of the Poor Law - the indignities of means-tested payments for those in poverty and the fear among the old and impoverished of ending life in the workhouse.
The Education Act was already on the statute book when the Labour government came to power. By raising the school-leaving age to 15 and later to 16, it was going to give children chances that their parents had never had - to carry their education on if they passed the examination into grammar school and even to university.
It would open up opportunities for jobs, homes and lifestyles that the working-class parents of these children had only dreamed of. Another nine major pieces of legislation were passed with strong support across the political parties before the decade was out. Main legislative measures of the post-war Labour government: His report, Social Insurance and Allied Services was compiled as the war at its height.
The centrepiece was a state-run system of compulsory insurance. Every worker, by contributing to a scheme of national insurance deducted through the weekly or monthly pay packet, would be helping to build up a fund that would pay out weekly benefits to those who were sick or unemployed or who suffered industrial injury.
The scheme would pay pensions at the end of a working life to employees and the self-employed. The idea was support the worker and his family. Benefits were to be set at a level that enabled a man his wife and child to survive. There would be benefits for widows and an allowance for guardians of children without parents to care for them.
A system of family allowances for the second child and subsequent children was intended to ensure that those with large families were not penalised. There was also to be a marriage grant, maternity grant and benefit, some specific training grants and a death grant.
The key feature was that people were eligible to receive these benefits and grants because they had contributed. For those who had not paid enough contributions or were not contributing to the national insurance scheme, there was a second tier of welfare provision, national assistance.
The financial side of this later to be renamed supplementary benefit and later still, income support was meant to be a supplement to the main scheme rather than to be central. The main scheme was universal - everyone had a right to it based on contributions.
Alongside these financial security provisions for all, there would be universal access to education and to health services. These would be funded from taxation and would be free at the point of use. Again everyone in work would pay, but in this case, since taxation increased with increasing income, the rich would pay more.
For it all to happen, however, there had to be full employment. The government would give top priority to the rebuilding of a strong, peacetime economy and the redeployment of troops into civilian work.
Only if the workers were in work would they be contributing to the scheme. Following are some of the comments made at the time by ordinary people who were questioned by teams of social researchers gauging reactions to the report and to the publicity that surrounded it.
These are drawn from Mass Observation and give a first hint of the reception that Beveridge received: What did people think of the Beveridge report? Positive comments were in a clear majority: All the yearnings, hopes, dreams and theories of socialists for the past half century have been crystallised into a practical economic formula.
Accountant, male, 40, Prestwick But there were negative comments too: Student, male, 22, Enfield "A lot of blah" is the most frequent remark from the women in the factory.
Jacobs, from Beveridge The welfare state involves a transfer of funds from the state to the services provided (i.e. healthcare, education, etc.) as well as directly to individuals ("benefits"), and is funded through taxation.
History of the Welfare State. Otto von Bismarck, the first Chancellor of Germany, created the modern welfare state by building on a tradition of welfare programs in Prussia and Saxony that began as early as in the s, and by winning the support of business.
Bismarck introduced old age pensions, accident insurance and medical care that formed. Welfare state, concept of government in which the state or a well-established network of social institutions plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the economic and social well-being of citizens.
It is based on the principles of equality of opportunity, equitable distribution of wealth. Bryson's words, from 's Welfare and the State - Who Benefits?, had the benefit of a half-century of hindsight to sum up some of the key themes of the period.
There is certainly some truth in the argument that the welfare measures that were introduced in the years from to . The welfare state of the United Kingdom comprises expenditures by the government of the United Kingdom intended to improve health, education, employment and social security.
The UK system has been classified as a liberal welfare state system. The Modern Welfare State Life was hard for the working class at the beginning of the 20th century. In surveys showed that between 15% and 20% of the population were living at .