The juvenile justice system of the

Goals of the Juvenile Justice System. These include treatment programs, detention, incarceration, and community supervision.

The juvenile justice system of the

The juveniles are participating actively in the crimes which lead eminent persons to think for amending the laws regarding the Juvenile Justice Act.

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The current problem India is facing that, the law is insufficient for giving punishment to the Juvenile, according to the crime committed. But the development of this act is not new in our society. The Juvenile Justice System was the direct consequence of the reforms and the developments in the Western Ideas.

In America, Haley vs Ohio [1] and Gallegos vs Colorado [2] the admissibility of a child was questioned and Kent vs United States [3] considered the requirements for a valid waiver of the exclusive jurisdiction of the juvenile courts.

Though these cases related to certain restricted aspects, they mistakably indicated that constitutional safeguards were not for the adults. The age criteria for being a juvenile vary from country to country, state to state. In ancient India, a parent was supposed not to punish a child who is under five years of age for any offence.

As per the law then prevailing a children of such tender age should be nursed and educated with love and affection only.

After the age of five, punishment may be given in some suitable form such as physical chastisement or rebuke by the parents, towards the later half of the childhood, punishment should be gradually withdrawn and replaced by advice. From the age of sixteen upwards sons and daughters should be treated as friends by the parents.

The Roman Laws stated that a child under seven years was incapable of crime. Boys from seven to fourteen and girls from seven to twelve pre-puberty age were considered partially responsible and the punishment left to the discretion of the Praetor.

The Probation of Offenders Act,imposes a restriction on the imprisonment of a person below 21 years. Thus, ordinarily a boy or a girl below 21 is not to be imprisoned.

Juvenile Justice Act, treated a boy under16 years of age to be a juvenile. But in case of a girl this age limit was 18 years.

For the first time the shift was noticed in United Nations. In this UN Declaration of the rights of child started for securing the rights of the child, regarding the special treatment and care to the child.

With this on the other hand UN Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice, The Beijing Rules started to work on accountability of exercise of discretion relating to children [6] The first legislation on juvenile justice in India came in with the Apprentice Act which required that children between the ages of convicted in courts to be provided vocational training as part of their rehabilitation process.

This act was transplanted by the Reformatory Schools Act, subsequently provided that children up to age of 15 may be sent to reformatory cell, and later the Juvenile Justice Act provided a uniform mechanism of Juvenile Justice. With the adoption of the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the administration of the Juvenile Justice, India was the first country to evolve its system in the light of the principles enunciated therein.

Of course, the other objectives were to Jay down a uniform legal framework for Juvenile Justice, to provide towards a specialised approach towards the prevention and control of juvenile delinquency, to speii out the machinery and infrastructure for Juvenile Justice operations, to establish norms and standards for the administration of Juvenile Justice, to develop appropriate linkages and coordination between the formal system and voluntary agencies and to constitute special offences in relation to juveniles and to prescribe punishment thereof [8].

In order to realise this goal, the Act imbibes the essential elements of all the due processes, parens patriae and participatmy models Singh, H. The new law undoubtedly places an onerous duty on the state to appropriately harness the resources from various sectors of socio-economic development in ensuring the well-being and welfare of juveniles and a chance to recover if they happen to falter [9].

However, due to the absence of a national consensus on the time frame for such a restructuring, the steps taken by most of the State Governments were still heavily short of the proclaimed goals. In order to rationalise and standardise the approach towards juvenile justice in keeping with the relevant provisions of the Constitution of India and International obligations in this regard, the Government of lndia re enacted the Juvenile Justice Care and Protection of the Children Act, For this a Working Group was set up failures in the implementation of the Juvenile Justice System are summarized in the literature review, seep.

The Act with all additional inputs has been enforced since April1,to deal with the children within its purview [10]. Juvenile Justice Care and Protection of Children Act,so that juvenile criminals in the age group of 16—18 can be tried as adults for serious crimes.

Juvenile Justice Care and Protection of Children Act, will allow a Juvenile Justice Board, which would include psychologists and sociologists, to decide whether a juvenile criminal in the age group of 16—18 should tried as an adult or not. The bill introduced concepts from the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Cooperation in Respect of Inter-Country Adoption, which were missing in the previous act.

The bill also seeks to make the adoption process of orphaned, abandoned and surrendered children more streamlined. The crimes are sometimes of heinous nature like murder, rape, robbery.

Age must not be a sole criterion to award a lenient punishment to the offender.

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New laws are been made every new day amendments are made to existing laws after the Delhi gang rape in Government made some amendments and inserted Section A and Section E of the Indian Penal Code which provides imposition of death penalty on those who are convicted of rape. In contrast to this, Juvenile Justice Care and Protection of Children Act, only imposes only a maximum sentence of 3 years without the reference to the nature committed.

It is not justified to let the convicted persons to get off with such leniency.The juvenile justice system has undergone significant modifications during the last 30 years.

This section describes the system, focusing on structure and process features that relate to .

The juvenile justice system of the

The juvenile justice system has undergone significant modifications during the last 30 years. This section describes the system, focusing on structure and process features that relate to delinquency and status offense urbanagricultureinitiative.com May 09,  · Youth under the age of 18 who are accused of committing a delinquent or criminal act are typically processed through a juvenile justice system urbanagricultureinitiative.com similar to that of the adult criminal justice system in many ways—processes include arrest, detainment, petitions, hearings, adjudications, dispositions, placement, probation, and reentry—the juvenile justice process operates according to.

The center of the juvenile justice system is the juvenile or family court (Moore and Wakeling, ).

American juvenile justice system - Wikipedia

In fact, the term juvenile justice is often used synonymously with the juvenile court, but it also may refer to other affiliated institutions in addition to the court, including the police, prosecuting and defense attorneys, probation, juvenile detention centers, and juvenile correctional facilities (Rosenheim, ).

Juvenile Justice is committed to the reduction and prevention of juvenile delinquency by effectively intervening, educating and treating youth in order to strengthen families and increase public safety. The ninth edition of Texas Juvenile Law, a comprehensive reference guide to statutes, case decisions, and procedures affecting the juvenile justice system, has been published.

The juvenile justice system of the

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